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Zixia Liua,b, Emmanuel Van Ackera, Colin Janssena,b, Jana Asselmanb
aGhent University, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
bBlue growth research lab, Ghent University, Greenbridge, Wetenschapspark 1, 8400 Ostend, Belgium
Release date: NOT-YET-2020
Sea Spray Aerosol (SSA) is generated by the bubble bursting of whitecap waves occurring in the sea surface microlayer (SSML), i.e. on the top layer of 1~1000 µm of seawater (Michaud et al., 2018). It contains mixed salts, organic materials, and marine biogenic. With 71% ocean coverage of the Earth, SSA represents as a major atmospheric aerosol particle type, and an essential source of human inhalable particles in the coastal area. Since the coastal zone (~100 km to the coastline) supports a population that is three times denser than the global average (Crossland et al. 2005), characterization of the SSAs’ concentration, chemical and biochemical composition, and particle size are vital for understanding and evaluating the human health consequences of SSA.
However, studies about the health risks of SSAs majorly focused on the negative health effects caused by extreme ecology events, such as brevetoxins generated during harmful algal blooms, e.g. red tide (Fleming et al., 2009). Yet, limited studies have been done on the potential impacts of SSAs to human health in the coastal area. A recent study reported inductions of apoptosis were observed when human lung cancer cells exposed to natural SSA (Asselman et al., 2019). Although the mechanism of positive SSA exposure effects is still unknown, and we don’t know which compound(s) is (/are) effective in SSA, the research result indicates that there are potential positive health effects at an environmentally relevant concentration of SSA.
Because of the enrichment effect (O’Dowd et al., 2004), the biogenic compounds in the seawater can be concentrated dozens or even hundreds of times. Some of these compounds are believed to be active to human health either positive (Moore, 2015) or nagitive (Guo et al., 1994). Enrichment rate of SSA compounds have been studied in recent decades, most studies focus on the enrichment rate of chemical categories of compounds in SSA (Cochran et al., 2017; Bertram et al., 2018), rather than the enrichment rate of specific compounds related to human health.
We have designed the following long-term sampling guidance to reveal the formation mechanism of human health-related compounds in SSA and hopefully predict the SSA-Human-Health-Index through conventional monitoring methods (remote sensing and weather data).
Site information listed below should be recorded each time before sampling processes. Sheet-1 gives an example of site information parameters that should be filled in and measured on-site.
For each field sampling, the following information should be recorded:
|SiteInfoID||The unique ID for the sampling site information, one ID for each sampling operation (can have multiple samples in one operation).|
|Date||Date for sampling operation.|
|TimeBegin||Time when the sampling operation begins.|
|TimeEnd||Time when the sampling operation end.|
|Participants||Names of the participant in this sampling operation.|
Take pictures of the sampling site and the surroundings if possible.
4.1.2. Site location
Geographic coordinates of sampling site should be measured using GPS equipment. Recommended App is My GPS Coordinates (iOS | Android). GPS signal accuracy should be within 100m, otherwise a professional GPS device is needed. The coordinate data should be accurate to 3 decimal places. The distance to coastline should also be in-situ measured and recorded if possible, otherwise, use R script to calculate afterwards.
|Latitude||°N||3 decimal places||Latitude of sampling site|
|Longitude||°E||3 decimal places||Longitude of sampling site|
|D2Coast||km||1 decimal places||Distance form sampling site to coastline|
4.1.3.Wind speed and direction
Wind speed and direction should be measured with WeatherFlow WINDmeter. Measurement should be performed three times: before, during, and after the sampling process. Both average speed and gust speed should be recorded. See HERE for the device user guide.
Figure 4.1.1 Wind speed and direction measurement
|WGSpeed1||km per hour||1 decimal place||Gust wind speed before sampling|
|WASpeed1||km per hour||1 decimal place||Average wind speed before sampling|
|WDirection1||°||1 decimal place||Wind direction before sampling|
|WGSpeed2||km per hour||1 decimal place||Gust wind speed during sampling|
|WASpeed2||km per hour||1 decimal place||Average wind speed during sampling|
|WDirection2||°||1 decimal place||Wind direction during sampling|
|WGSpeed3||km per hour||1 decimal place||Gust wind speed after sampling|
|WASpeed3||km per hour||1 decimal place||Average wind speed after sampling|
|WDirection3||°||1 decimal place||Wind direction after sampling|
4.1.4.Temperature, relative humidity and air pressure
Temperature (dry bulb temperature), relative humidity and air pressure should be measured with WeatherFlow WINDmeter or other professional equipment for measurement.
|Temperature||°C||1 decimal place||Dry bulb temperature in Celsius|
|Humidity||%||1 decimal place||Relative humidity using dry and wet bulb thermometer|
|AirPressure||inHg||2 decimal place||Atmospheric pressure|
This part is adapted and modified from Guide to best practices to study the ocean’s surface and GB 17378.3-2007 Marine Monitoring Code Part 3: Sample Collection, Storage and Transportation
4.2.1.Sea surface microlayer (SSML) sampling
220.127.116.11.Mesh screen sampling method
This sampling method is preferred when the wind and waves are not strong. Otherwise, please use the glass plate sampling method.
Figure 4.2.1 Mesh screen sampling device
Figure 4.2.2 Mesh screen sampling procedures (modified from Cunliffe et al., 2014)
18.104.22.168.Glass panel sampling method
Figure 4.2.3 Glass panel sampling procedures (from Cunliffe et al., 2014)
a)glass plate sampler with integral PVC handle showing sample collection (courtesy of Manuela van Pinxteren, TROPOS, Germany).
b) squeegeeing a simple plate sampler held with a clean plastic clamp.
c) squeegeeing a glass plate sampler using “clean hands/dirty hands” technique (courtesy of Manuela van Pinxteren, TROPOS, Germany).
d) a glass plate and sample recovery device containing integral Teflon wiper and funnel, based on the design of Hardy et al. (1985).
4.2.2.Surface seawater sampling
Filter holder preparation
Schematic diagram of sampling devices, inspired by Sam Baelus’s Master’s dissertation and Emmanuel
SSA sample collection:
5.1 SSML sample storage
The SSML samples should be analysised as soon as possible. Before that it should be stored in dark at 4°C without any pre-treatment (K. Schneider-Zapp et al.,2013).
5.2 Surface seawater storage
For different purpose, the seawater samples will be saperate into two group for preservation.
5.2.1 Filtration and acidification